Gamification was
based on the formal definition by Deterding,
et, al. [2], indicating the use of game design
elements in non-game context. Game mechanics are constructs
of rules and techniques that when employed in gamification is used as building
blocks for gamified application. Game
dynamics are the reasons why people are motivated by game mechanics [4].

Kiili‘s
experiential gaming model explains how the game design process can interfere
with and influence the learning process. This model is based on
Csikszentmihalyi‘s Flow model and states that during optimal experience, a person
is in such a psychological state where he or she is so involved with the goal
driven activity that nothing else seems to matter. According to the model,
learning follows a cyclical process through direct experience in the game world
and the necessary learning activities are both cognitive and behavioral. The
model consists of a solution loop, an experience loop and a challenge bank.
Motivation and engagement of the player represent the heart of the model, which
along with individual and social parameters; lead the player to the solutions.
After this phase, solutions are tested in the experience loop, where players
have the ability to control the game and expand their knowledge of the subject
matter and finally optimize playing strategy. Another important thing is that
the tempo of the challenges follows the player‘s characteristics, in order to
increase the impact on them. 

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