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Li Bing Ning (2008) New socialist countryside construction
is an important historical task in Chinese modernization process; economic
development is the necessary material basis of new socialist countryside
construction. Deqing county party committee and government have transformed government
functions timely and effectively, identified development as top priority, and
innovated the model of new rural industrial development in view of the actual underdevelopment
of the mountains economic, making economy and society develop rapidly and
healthily and raise the people’s production and living standard.

YANG De-wei (2008) This paper aims to compare three models
in terms of development policies, development potentials and operational
mechanism by evaluating, identifying and choosing the best one to meet the
needs of tourism development and management in the nonoptimal tourism districts
(NTDs). The methods of Participatory Rural Tourism Appraisal and Analytic
Hierarchy Process are employed to collect the necessary data and analyze the
key issues of three models. According to the analysis, market-oriented rural
tourism development model and resource-oriented rural tourism development model
are suitable for Moutuo community at the beginning stage of tourism development,
while industryoriented rural tourism development model is potential and
beneficial to its further development. Some effective management practices for
different models are recommended to overcome the barriers of nonoptimal
characteristics and balance the interest of tourism stakeholders. And
sustainable development of rural tourism in NTD could come true with the
guidance of rational models and polycentric management.

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Vincent Van A cker (2013) A key input to any responsible
energy development project is the current state of energy consumption in the
local community as well as the associated expenses. This information can be
used to guide the design of the system and to plan for the project’s long-term
financial viability. This paper describes residential energy use and costs in
Muhuru Bay, Kenya. The results are based on a 2013 household energy survey with
69 respondents as well as two focus groups. The survey included questions
regarding the use and cost of kerosene, batteries, candles, price to recharge mobile
phones, along with demographic information. It is demonstrated how the results
of the survey are incorporated into the development of a sustainable business
plan of a community charging station microgrid project at a school in Muhuru
Bay, Kenya. Best practices of conducting energy surveys and lessons learned are
provided based on experiences in Kenya and elsewhere.

 Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar
Swain (2015) In this paper, an empirical path loss model is proposed for a
WiMAX network operating on a carrier frequency of 2.63GHz for a rural terrain
condition. This model is developed by means of real time measurements which are
conducted on a deployed BSNL WiMAX network at Kuchinda, Sambalpur district,
Odisha. The real time data like received signal strength indicator
(RSSI),Carrier to interference plus noise ratio (CINR) are collected at
different locations of that network and with the help of those data, a new real
time path loss model is proposed using MATLAB simulation software. The proposed
path loss model is compared with existing path loss models for identifying the
one which closely approximates with it.The value of path loss exponent, path
loss due to shadowing are calculated. Also, the relationships between RSSI,
CINR and distance between base station (BS) and customer premise equipment
(CPE) are formulated.

Uzzal Kumar Prodhan (2016) In this paper we have developed a
Telemedicine model with portable tool kit for remote patients to collect vital
signs of patients which are used for Telemedicine services. This developed
system is low cost, portable, and easily maintainable and can be integrated
with any complex health system. We have used the GNU health where local doctors
can communicate with a low cost terminal. Expert doctors can also take part
through this terminal and deliver treatment to the patients. The patient’s
medical history is stored in GNU health database and accessed from the remote
terminal. We have successfully designed the system and collected the patient’s
data. Through our developed android apps, the data will be stored in the
staging server. From the staging server, any health system can collect the data
and give the services to the rural people. Finally we can conclude that, Telemedicine
service can be given effectively by using our portable tool kit in a cost
effective manner which improves the quality and accessibility especially in
rural areas.

Gustavo Rostirolla (2016) As a result of rural and suburban
migration to the cities, urban life has become a significant challenge for
citizens and, particularly, for city administrators who must manage the
sustainable use of resources such as energy, water and transportation. Smart
cities are the biggest vision to efficiently address these challenges through a
real-time monitoring, providing an intelligent planning and a sustainable urban
development. However, to accomplish them we need a tightly integration among
citizens, city devices, city administrators and the data center platform where
all data is stored, combined and processed. In this context, we propose ElCity,
a model that combines citizens and city devices data to enable an elastic
multilevel management of energy consumption for a particular city. As design
decision, this management must occur automatically without affecting the quality
of already offered services. The main contribution of ElCity model concerns the
exploration of the cloud elasticity concept in multiple target levels
(smartphones from citizens, city devices involved in the public lightning and
data center nodes), turning on or off the resources on each level in accordance
with their demands. In this way, this article presents the ElCity architecture,
detailing its modules distributed along the three data sources, in addition to
an experiment that uses city devices and citizens data from Rome to explore
energy saving. The results are promising, with an Energy Monitor module that
allows the estimation of the energy consumption of elastic applications based
on CPU and memory traces with an average and median precision of 97.15% and
97.72%. Moreover, we proposed a reduction of more than 90% in the energy spent
in public lightning in the city of Rome which was obtained thanks to an
analysis of geolocation data from their citizens.

Joanna Zukowska (2017) Warmia and Mazury still belongs to
the areas with the smallest transport accessibility in Europe. Unsatisfactory
state of road infrastructure is a major barrier to the development of the
regional economy, impacting negatively on the life conditions of the
population. Also in terms of road safety Warmia and Mazury is one of the most
endangered regions in Poland. The Police statistics show that beside a high
pedestrian risk observed in the capital of the region the threat occurs also at
the rural area. This indicates the growing role of speed and unforgiving
roadside as a cause of accidents. In this article analysis of road safety
trends together with short term forecasts of possible future changes are
presented based on time series modeling techniques. The results may serve as a
tool of road safety management at the regional level.

Yong Liu (2017) With the accelerating process of
urbanization, rural migrant workers flood into the cities. Research projects
that aim at resettlement and employment promotion of these workers, social
stability, as well as economic development have drawn attention of government
and scholars alike. With respect to the matching problems of urban employment
of rural migrant workers, grey incidence analysis and two-sided matching theory
is exploited to establish a novel two-sided matching decisionmaking model
between rural workers and their jobs. In this paper, first, grey incidence
analysis is used to describe and measure the preference information and
satisfaction degree of both rural workers and their jobs; from the perspective
of satisfaction degree of matching subjects, stability of the matching plan and
equality, a multi-objective optimization model for twosided matching
decision-making problem between rural workers and their jobs was constructed,
based on minimum matching distance and minimum deviation of matching distance;
then linear weighting method is exploited to convert the multiobjective
matching model into a single-objective optimization model to determine the
two-sided matching plan between rural workers and their jobs; finally, the real
problem of urban employment of rural migrant workers is discussed.

Guodong Zhang(2017) Based on the field research data of more
than 20 counties and cities in Anhui Province, the empirical test is carried
out for the utilization status of different groups of medical services by
seemingly unrelated regression model. The study shows that there is a high
similarity between the agricultural registered population and the urban
flexible employed population in the medical service utilization but there is a
great difference between urban formal employed populations in the medical
service utilization. Therefore, it shall be started from strengthening
awareness of health maintenance and investment for rural residents, improving the
income level of rural residents and breaking the restrictions of resource
utilization and allocation difference such as medical caused by household
registration system to gradually achieve urban and rural integrated medical
security system and promote the sustainable development of medical security
system and the establishment of harmonious society.

H. Wasajja (2017) Gasifier-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-
Microturbine system is a potential modern biomass energy supply system which
will not only meet cooking and electrical energy demands of rural remote and
isolated communities of tropical countries but also provide solutions to other
major challenges such as water and food shortages faced by these communities.
This article describes a backcasting experiment that is used as a tool to
evaluate the social, technical and economic feasibility and potential barriers
for implementation of Gasifier–SOFCMicroturbine systems. Thus the steps which
could lead to their full implementation and realization in the nearby future
are identified and characterized. Modeling with software package “Cycle tempo”
is used to generate models that give an insight in the technical feasibility of
such systems. A Bounded Social Technical Experiment (BSTE) is designed for
Kodur community in India as a pilot project to initiate this modern technology
with the goal of stakeholders’ involvement and capacity building such that they
can fully support and contribute to the technology’s future development,
implementation and extension.

J. M. Lujano-Rojas (2016) Renewable energies are in constant
growth and evolution, being a clean way to provide the energy required for the
sustainable development of human society. In this context, energy storage
systems are a key factor in the integration of renewable generation, because
through them, the flexibility of the power system can be increased. Lead-acid
batteries have been extensively used to provide electricity in isolated and
rural locations, and could be integrated to the smart grid in order to improve
its performance. However, this is a complex element due to its working
principle, specifically during charging periods. In this paper, a general
purpose model is formulated from a probabilistic point-of-view in order to
determine the range of possible values of state-of-charge due to the
uncertainty and to estimate the battery efficiency. A case study is analyzed
and the results are compared with Monte Carlo Simulation approach in order to
evaluate the proposed model.

Sheng-Tsung Hou (2017) Recent studies of “regional
innovation system” (RIS) are mostly on technology- driven clusters, but
few on demand-driven “rural-based RIS”. From the perspectives of
value co-creation, there are still few discussed on the rural-based RIS by
culture and creative motives. To integrate such theoretical gap, this study
grounds on RIS and PPP (publicprivate- partnership) from qualitative research
approach, to interpret the case of Yilan— a rural northeastern county in
Taiwan— dealing with poverty and financial burden, held a flagship local
festival since 1996 International Children’s Folklore & Folkgame Festival,
to transform its value creation into local economic and social development in
the following decades. From the case of Yilan, this study examines the value
creation amongst stakeholders from different sectors, and thus induct to the
process, approaches, and model of rural-based RIS. Finally, this research
elaborates the theories through rural-based RIS, and thus contributes the
theoretical and practice implications.

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