asss

                                                                                                      Adil Ali 4th Semester

Q NO 1: What is the significance of Objectives
Resolution?

Objectives Resolution is one of the most important documents
in the constitutional history of Pakistan. It was passed by the first
Constituent Assembly on 12th March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat
Ali Khan. It laid down the objectives on which the future constitution of the
country was to be based and it proved to be the foundational stone of the
constitutional development in Pakistan. The most significant thing was that it
contained the basic principles of both Islamic political system and Western
Democracy. Pakistan was created in the name of Islam therefore it was necessary
to adopt Islamic law and principle that why western educated also known as
modernist Mohammad Ali Jinnah founder of Pakistan clearly mentioned that
Pakistan would not be theocratic state. In a sense, MA Jinnah wanted nascent
state should be secular but on the contrary Ulma who contributed independence
movement intention was Islamic country. Therefore, the objectives resolution adopted
both Islamic and Western democratic principles, declaring that the principles
of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as inshore by
Islam should be followed. Muslims shall live their lives according the teaching
of Quran and Sunnah. Besides, it has another significant factor that was rights
of minorities. In fact, it has mentioned the
minorities can freely profess and practice their religion in the new founded
state. In addition, It would be the duty of the state to safeguard the
interests of minorities, backward and depressed classes.

Q NO 2:  What is Hamza Alavi’s perspective
about Ulama in the Khilafat Movement?

Hamza Alavi pointed
out that the Ulama were far away from the Indian politics before the khilafath
movement. It is clear that all society of India has been secular and the
religion played no vital role in Indian politics but due to this movement which
provided an opportunity to the Ulma to legitimize their entry to modern
political arena. So, they formed their own religious and political organization
Jamiat e Ulama e Hind and Islam which remained active till the partition. He
further asserts that Muslim ideological nationalism came into existence during
or aftermath Khilafath movement by Ulama. Because of this, Muslims and Hindus
went towards a huge division. It may be right to say that the British
government took advantage and further maintained her authority. Apart from
this, Alavi also envisaged that the whole Indian society particularly Muslims
plunged into religious fanaticism and due to this the modern Muslim political
thought totally damaged. And thus it permanently paved the way religious
intolerance and hatred toward other religion, and it also widened the sectarian
division. it should be noted here that Ulama also had tremendous role in
mobilizing the Muslim masses and promulgating the idea for separate homeland.

QNO3: What
is the political significance of Shabbir Usmani and Hussain Ahmed Usmani?

Shabbir Usmani

Shabbir Ahmed Usmani was an great religious scholar, an author
and a sincere political leader. His efforts first for the creation of Pakistan
and then, after it’s creation, for the establishment of a truly Islamic system
of Government were, indeed, unforgettable. Usmani was one of those few Deoband
Ulamas who fought for the establishment of Pakistan. He was the Founder and
President of Jamiat-ul- Ulama-e-Islam which most effectively counteracted the
anti- Pakistan Movement propaganda and activities led by pro-Congress
Jamiat-ul-Ulamai Hind. After Independence he became a Member of the first Constituent
Assembly of Pakistan and
remained so till his death in March 1949. He left his memorial mark in the
history of Pakistan when he spearheaded the ‘Objective resolution passed
by the Constituent Assembly in March 1949 and participated in the preparation
of the first draft of the constitution of Pakistan. He also lead the funeral of
Mohammad Ali Jinnah & Jinnah offered first Eid prayers after formation of
Pakistan in his imamat.

Hussain Ahmed Madni

Hussain Ahmad Madni was an Islamic scholar and foremost
supporter of India’s freedom struggle. His contribution to India’s emergence as
a secular democratic nation-state ranks with that of Mahatma Gandhi, Maulana
Azad and Jawaharlal Nehru. As an anti-imperialist crusader he spent long years
in British jails between 1914 and 1947. His most outstanding contribution is
his theoretical Islam and Muttahida Qaumiyat . 
He carried a campaign against Two-Nation Theory and opposed Muslim
League’s attempt at partitioning India .He denounced Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Maulana Madani was one of the founder members of
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and also became
the President of the Jamiat 
e Ulama e Hind.

QNO 4: What do you
mean by term “secularism” as highlighted from our readings?

According to readings the term secularism means that there is
no role of religion in politics of state and through this all citizens should
be treated equally. The separation of religion, state is the foundation of secularism.
It ensures that religious groups do not interfere in affairs of state and its
politics and also state does not interfere in religious issues. Similarly, Ulma
has no access to political institutions and they are only responsible for the
religious faiths and institutions or madras. It must be borne in mind that
secularism should not be termed as non-religious, it only means that in the
functioning of state, religious scholars or the clergy should not play any
role.

 In India, secularism
and Islam were controversial. It should be clear that during time of partition,
AIML slogan was purely Islamic. They wanted an Islamic country where law should
be applied through Quran and Sunnah. However many Ulama criticized ALML for demanding
a Western-democratic state because they thought that AIML leaders actually did
not want a Islamic state. In Ayesha Jalal book “the struggle for Pakistan” it
is clearly shown that those Ulama were right. Jinnah who was a secularist,
wanted a secular country. In his 11 august speech, he mention that Pakistan
would be secular country .the following is the Mohammad Ali Jinnah famous
speech.

“You are free; you are free to go to your temples. You
are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this State
of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, caste or creed—that has nothing to
do with the business of the state.”

Another speech to the people of the United States of America,
Jinnah declared that

“Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic state, to be ruled
by priests with a divine mission. We have many non Muslims, Hindus, Christen,
and Parses, but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and
privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the
affairs of Pakistan”

On the country, Ulama who joined hand with Jinnah and to whom
Jinnah assured there will be Islamic state when it will get, due to this they
supported independence movement for Islamic ideology. After partition Ulama
opposed Jinnah for his secular attitude and stand against it that Pakistan become
a secular state.