CHANGING TRENDS IN THE INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE & THE FACTORS AFFECTING SUCH TRENDS. SUBMITTED BY – NAME – ABHINIT VERMA. CLASS – B.A LL.B. DIVISION – “C”. ROLL NO – 38.ANCIENT MARRIAGE V/S MODERN MARRIAGE.Marriage in a simple way can be understood as one of the important social institutions of the Indian society. This social institution has been established by the human society itself. Marriages can have different implications in different cultures, its functions and forms may vary from society to society. In the Indian society the importance of marriages has been given since time immemorial or it can be said that it is into the continuity since our great-great grandparents time itself. Since the ancient period only marriage has been said to be a sacramental bond between the husband and wife and not to be called as a contract. But this pure relationship of the marriage has been drastically transformed in the modern times. In the modern era marriage as an institution has observed many change in trends and the ones who are responsible for the changes are the youths of the young generation. There have been a lot of differences in the marriage ceremony seen in the ancient times and now at the modern period. The Indian youth are more concerned with modern style and inspired of the western style of marriages now a days. In the ancient times marriage as an institution was more about companionship, marriages used to take place by marital rituals etc, but now in the modern period marriage has became more to show off the economic standards of the people. In today’s world industrialisation, education, urbanisation has all changed the concept of marriages.Some of the most important areas where we can see the trends in the change of marriages are –Change in the aim or purpose of marriage – In the traditional or ancient period the main purpose of marriage was to tie a male and a female to a sacred knot and become the lifelong protector of his wife and to fulfil the vows of the marriage, but in the modern era marriage is more to be concerned with companionship of the individual of the opposite sex. In the modern period the concept of marriage has been transformed a lot now there are contract marriages in which people marry for the specific purpose which was not seen in the ancient times.Change in the party of selection – Earlier parents, elders and the relatives of the family used to select the mate for the eligible person but in the modern times the youth want to accomplish this task by themselves, because they think that marriage is a bonding for lifetime hence there mates must be of their own choice. This trend is reflected more in the instances of love marriages.Change in the field of selection – Earlier the marriages used to take place according to the caste and religion of the bride and the bridegroom and mostly people were more concerned with the caste and the religion to be same of the both individuals, but now the field of selection has been changed and now the young generations are not concerned with the caste and all rather they believe in having a better companion for their life , and now we can see most of the people in the urban areas are continuing with having inter-caste marriages as well as inter-religion marriages also. Change in the economic aspect of marriage – If we talk of the economic aspect of marriage then the first and foremost thing that comes to our mind is dowry. In the ancient times dowry was one of the rituals we can say to make a marriage successful. It has not been changed in the modern period a lot but most of the youth of the modern period are in opposition of dowry as a part of marriage. In the modern society youth are more concerned to give comfort to their wife and for this they want to remove dowry as a part of the marriage. Many educated youth refuse to take even a single penny from their in-laws to show their own dignity and standards. In the modern society marriage rituals have been made optional and fancy weddings can be seen more, firing crackers etc shows that marriages are taking place which was not seen in the ancient times.Increase in divorce – In the ancient times divorce was considered to be a sin in the society but in the modern era people more often come to get divorce this is because of individualistic values that make them focused on personal selves, they first look at their own growth and wishes than of others and such attitudes sometimes results in arguments, disagreement and disputes with their spouses.Some of the laws that have come up to regulate the trends of marriage are:Widow Remarriage act – The Hindu widow’s remarriage act, 1856 was enacted on 26 July 1856 which has changed the perception of women of ancient period and the modern times. In the early society the women’s were not allowed to marry once there husband gets died but in today’s scenario the widows are also acceptable to marry again and continue their new life.Sati prohibition act – The Sati prohibition act was mainly come into existence due to intense struggle of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Sati prohibition act has changed the life of modern women living in the society. Earlier the women used to die in the fire with his dead husband, but now this type of thing is no longer seen in the society.Prohibition of dowry – This has not been enacted as per law but still the government is giving several recommendations to stop this evil type of thing from the society. Advertisements are done on regular basis to stop dowry. Nowadays in the youth also the feeling of taking dowry has demolished and they also want a dowry free marriage.The constitution of India have provided with many rights to married women which were not there in early ancient times :Right to streedhan, Right to residence, Right to a committed relationship, Right to live with dignity & self respect, Right to maintenance by husband, Right to child maintenance etcThe child marriage restraint act 1929 – This act came into effect from 18 may 1930.this act restrains the child marriage. Earlier the age of boys and girls were 18 & 14 respectively to get married but after the amendment in 1978 the age bar was raised to 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls.Family court act, 1984 – this type of legislation was not there in ancient period but after 1984 this act was enacted and it ensures fair justice given to women who are victims of family disputes.So in the modern time we can see several changes that took place to curb the problem of marital life which was earlier and give a smooth life to the women of modern society. Several government legislation made women stronger and strengthen them with proving such laws and rights after the marriage. Women are the base of a better society. A better society is that which gives women equal status, treats them equally, and show respect towards them rather neglecting them saying inferior as compared to the men. Changes are the law of nature and henceforth it can be said that it’s not the end that came up with the marriage as an institution but rather as the time will change in the future the trend will also probably change.