GIS in Evolutionary Biology

GIS can be used in a wide variety of fields,
including evolutionary biology.  The main
benefit GIS provides to the evolutionary biology field is allowing integration
of environmental data to reveal new insights into the ecological causes of
evolutionary patterns (Kozak et al. [year]). 
Factors such as temperature, precipitation, and topography are important
for understanding evolutionary patterns of species, but many evolutionary
biologists did not fully take these factors into considerations due to resource
constraints, such as time and cost of conducting extensive global field
studies.  With GIS, data regarding these
factors is now readily accessible for hundreds of locations and fairly simple
to integrate into studies.   The subfield
of evolutionary biology that is benefitting most from GIS data integration is
that of phylogeography, which is the study of processes that contribute to the
geographic distribution of species.