Humayun

After his defeat in the battle of Kanuaj,
Humayun returned back to Agra but he was chased by Sher Shah. Humayun fled to
Lahore. Sher Shah occupied Delhi and Agra. Even in this crisis his brothers
were not prepared to stand by him. Kamran sought Sher Shah’s goodwill with a view to retaining
possession of the Punjab. Humaynu had therefore to run away as a fugitive to
Sindh. Kamran made futile attempt to come to an understanding with Sher Shah as
an independent ruler of Kabul and the Punjab. Kamran fled to Kabul on the
approach of the Afghan armies. Thus all the Mughal territories in India up to
Khyber Pass Fell into the hands of Sher Shah. Askari also escaped to
Afghanistan and was appointed the Governor of Kandhar by Kamran. Hindal
accompanied Humayun to Sind.

In Sind as well fortune went against Humayun
because of the hostility of the ruler of Sindh Shah Hussain and the scarcity of
provisions among his followers. It was during his wanderings in the deserts of
Sindh that he married Hamida Banu Begum, a Young girl of 14, the daughter of
Hindal’s spritual preceptor
Mir Baba Dost alias Mir Ali Akbar Jami (1541). About this time Humayun decided
to accept the invitation from Maldeva of Marwar who had promised him assistance
about a year back and started for Jodhpur. But in the changed political
situation Rajput prince was not prepared to offend Sher Shah by keeping the old
promise with Humayun. So Humayun retraced his steps back to Sind. It was here
in Sind that in 1542 Akbar was born at Amarkot in the house of Hindu Chief Rana
Virsala.

Unable to get any help from any quarter
Humayun decided to leave India for Good. He reached Persia. The young ruler of
Persia Shah Tahmasp offered to help Humayun on three conditions (1) he should
accept the shia faith (ii) he should make Shiasm the state religion in India
and (iii)he should surrender Kandhar to the Persians in case of success.
Humayun accepted the conditions. At this time Kamran was in possession of
Kabul, Askari of Kandhar while Hindal of Ghazni as by then he had changed over
to the side of Kamran. With the help of Shah of Persia Humayun occupied Kabul
and Kandhar in 1545. Kandhar was given to the Persian but again re-occupied by
Humayun after the death of the Persian Shah. This later on led to hostilities
between the Mughals and the Persians. The occupation of Kabul and Kandhar gave
Humayun a footing in Afghanistan. However, his brothers continued to give him
trouble until they were finally liquidated. Askari was taken prisoner and
exiled to Mecca in 1551. Hindal was killed in a night attack by an afghan while
kamran was taken a prisoner, blinded and sent to Mecca in 1553.