schizophrenia

Introduction

 

           “If you talk to God, you are
praying; If God talks to you, you have schizophrenia.”[1]

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We are all used to call our friends
nicknames, We sometimes make fun about people being crazy or nuts, we sometimes
without thinking call our moody friends ” schizophrenic”, but is it
really true that schizophrenic people are just moody people?. In fact, it’s a
common mistake because Schizophrenia is a totally different case.

Schizophrenia can lead to death, social
disability, social stigma, as well as affecting relationships in the family.
There are several factors that contribute to the risk of developing
schizophrenia-like genes and environment issues, and different brain chemistry
and structure. Scientists state that different genes could increase the
prospect of having schizophrenia, but not a single gene could directly cause
the disorder by itself.

Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental
diseases, from all over the globe 40 Million humans being experienced schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental issue with specific symptoms, the
schizophrenic person also have false perceptions of reality as he/she may live
in a non-existing place and talk to people they think they are around them but
they are not, living in a world distorted by hallucinations and delusions,
individuals with schizophrenia may feel frightened, anxious, and confused, .Due
to the unusual realities they experience, schizophrenics may act very
differently at various times. Sometimes they may seem disassembled, unfastened,
or preoccupied and may even sit as rigidly as a stone, not move for hours or utter
a sound. Other times they may move normally and they are always occupied,
wide-awake, and alert.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Causes of schizophrenia

 

There are billions of nerve cells in the
brain. Each nerve cell has branches that transmit and receive messages from
other nerve cells. The nerve endings release chemicals, called
neurotransmitters, which carry the messages from the end of one nerve branch to
the cell body of another. In the brain afflicted with schizophrenia, there is
an issue in this communication system.

The precise cause of schizophrenia
remains unknown. Changes in key brain functions, such as perception, emotions,
and behavior, indicate that the brain is the biological site of schizophrenia.
Some researchers suspect neurotransmitters (the substances through which cells
communicate) may be involved. There may be changes in dopamine, serotonin, or
other neurotransmitters. The limbic system (an area of the brain involved with
emotion), the thalamus (which coordinates outgoing messages), and several other
brain regions may also be affected.

 

Physical factors

 

Some connected between schizophrenia and
skinny physical style

 

Physiological factors

 

Changes associated with sexual puberty,
maturity, pregnancy, childbirth, age of inactivity and accompanying social and
economic shocks, stress, anxiety and failure of the schizophrenic personality
of the patient to face, the endocrine disorder and there is an opinion saying
that schizophrenia is a pathological physiological caused by a burst and
permeation of electric waves in the brain as occurs in the case of the sleep of
the dreamer and it creeps over the individual during vigilance and causes him to
have similar changes and to cause him changes similar to what happens in dreams.

 

 

Chimical factors

 

”Scientists think that an imbalance in
the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain involving the
neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate, and possibly others, plays a role in
schizophrenia. Neurotransmitters are substances that brain cells use to
communicate with each other. Scientists are learning more about how brain
chemistry is related to schizophrenia. Also, the brain structures of some
people with schizophrenia are slightly different than those of healthy people.
For example, fluid-filled cavities at the center of the brain, called
ventricles, are larger in some people with schizophrenia. The brains of people
with the illness also tend to have less gray matter, and some areas of the
brain may have less or more activity. These differences are observed when brain
scans from a group of people with schizophrenia are compared with those from a
group of people without schizophrenia. However, the differences are not large
enough to identify individuals with the disorder and are not currently used to
diagnose schizophrenia. Studies of brain tissue after death also have revealed
differences in the brains of people with schizophrenia. Scientists have found
small changes in the location or structure of brain cells that are formed
before birth. Some experts think problems during brain development before birth
may lead to faulty connections. The problem may not show up in a person until
puberty. The brain undergoes major changes during puberty, and these changes
could trigger psychotic symptoms in people who are vulnerable due to genetics
or brain differences. Scientists have learned a lot about schizophrenia, but
more research is needed to help explain how it develops.”[2]

 

[1]https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/t/thomasszas123108.html

[2] https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia-booklet/nih-15-3517_151858.pdf (page 9/10)

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