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Research ProposalCalcium oxide loaded mesoporous alumina modified in flyash composite ; an application for removal of fluorideW.M.R.D.Wijesundara140687XDr. J. M. A. Manatunge 12th January, 2018Department of Civil EngineeringFaculty of EngineeringUNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA – SRI LANKAIntroductionThe World Health Organization (WHO) has defined fluoride as one of the main pollutants in drinking water. Actually some amount of fluoride is needed to prevent dental caries. But excess amount of fluoride intake for a longer period through drinking water leads to have different diseases. Some of them are Dental fluorosis (discolouration and pitting of teeth), Skeletal fluorosis (pain and stiffness in the back bone and joints) and nonskeletal fluorosis (rashes on skin, nervousness, muscle weakness).  According to the WHO recommendations the desirable limit and the permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water are 1.0 mg/ L and 1.5 mg/ L respectively. Therefore adsorbent which is capable of removing fluoride from water is suitable to get rid of this situation. There are various methods used to remove fluoride from water. Among them adsorption is a widely used technique for this purpose due to its simple operation process and cost effectiveness. Activated Al2O3 is the most extensively used adsorbent for removal of fluoride from drinking water due to its high affinity and selectivity for fluoride. Crystal structure, morphology and surface properties of aluminas play important roles on their fluoride removal capacity. Therefore CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 adsorbent has a high fluoride removal capacity. So in this research it is supposed to find an application for removal of fluoride by calcium oxide loaded mesoporous alumina modified in flyash composite. Problem StatementWhen excess amount of fluoride is taken through drinking water for a longer period many health problems occur. In the recent years in Sri Lanka many health problems has arised due to this matter. Chronic kidney disease is one of the main health problem occur due to this. And other which may occur are Dental fluorosis (discolouration and pitting of teeth), Skeletal fluorosis (pain and stiffness in the back bone and joints) and nonskeletal fluorosis (rashes on skin, nervousness, muscle weakness) etc. Significance of the researchActually it is important to find solutions for this problem as it badly affect for the health condition of people. There are some aspects to be considered when selecting a treating method for this kind of a research. It is important to consider the cost, availability of materials, time period, level of removal required and testing procedures etc. Here flyash is a cheap material as it is a waste product of coal power plants.This research will be very useful for the people in the dry zone of Sri Lanka as well as for the people who lives in heavily agricultural areas. They are the stakeholders of this research. And in the other hand this research will be important for different industries to manage their water treating systems.Scope of the studyConcentration of fluoride and pH are proposed to be find out in the research. Calcium oxide loaded mesoporous alumina solution has to be made at the laboratory. Flyash can be cheaply found as it is a waste product of coal power plants.Aims and Objectives of the researchTo analyse the removal efficiency of Calcium Oxide loaded mesoporous Alumina for the removal of fluoride in drinking water.To check whether flyash composite has an ability to reduce fluoride with CaO loaded mesoporous alumina in drinking water. To improve the fly ash composite as much as possible. To identify best performance indicator of CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 in different external and environmental conditions.To assess suitability of CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 in removal of nephrotoxic constituents in groundwater.  Proposed MethodologySome general background about this issue is found. For example,No of people who has get diseases related to this matterAvailable water resources and water consumption patternsExisting water purification systemsMaintenances and ability to replace themDrawbacks of water purification systemsA literature review will be conducted comprehensively to gather some information like,          Properties of CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3Methods of synthesis, purification and modificationApplication of them in water purificationRemoval mechanisms such as absorption/desorptionIon exchangePrecipitation/desolutionOxidation and reductionAdvantages and disadvantages of the material for water purificationRecommended and permissible drinking water guideline valuesThe process of laboratory experiment in stepwise is as below. Contaminated Water          Zeolite         CaO loaded mesoporous + flyash composite Safe Quality WaterZeolite and CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 will be synthesized, purified and modified in the laboratory to carry out series of laboratory experiment. Zeolite and CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 will be characterized to identify their size, shape, shape distribution and surface areas using XRD, SEM, FTIR and BET.Water solutions that contained different concentrations of water constituents reported in CKDu affected areas will be synthesized in the laboratoryBatch mode experiments and fixed bed column reactor experiment will be conducted to investigate removal efficiency of Zeolite and CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 under different external and environmental conditions relevant to the CKDu affected areas. Removal related properties of Zeolite and CaO loaded mesoporous Al2O3 will be identified using adsorption isotherms such as Langmuire adsorption isotherms and Freundlich adsorption isotherm.        Langmuire adsorption model  qe =Qo b Ce1+bCeFreundlich adsorption modelqe =kCe(1n)Amount of fluoride, hardness, cadmium, and arsenic adsorbed will be calculated using the below equation. Mass balance equationqt =((C0-Ct)W)x V    qt – Amount adsorbed        C0 – Initial concentration of ions (mg/l)        Ct – Concentration at time t (mg/l)        V – Volume (L)        M – Mass (g) Removal efficiency of each material will be calculated in term of initial concentrations of ions and concentrations at time t. Removal efficiency equationRemoval efficiency (%)=(Raw water concentration(mgl))-(Permeate concentrationmgl)(Raw water concentrationmgl) x 100Time schedule/work planBudget/estimated cost built up Estimated research cost is 10000 LKRBibliography/References Google scholarDharmagunawardhane, H. A., 2009. Fluoride Problem in the Groundwater of Sri LankaWorld Water Assessment programme 2009www.sciencedirect.com/science/article

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